AJTR Copyright © 2009-All rights reserved. Published by e-Century Publishing Corporation, Madison, WI 53711
Am J Translational Res 2010;2(4):412-440

Review Article
Urine cytology and adjunct markers for detection and sureveillance of
bladder cancer

Peggy S. Sullivan, Jessica B. Chan, Mary R. Levin, Jianyu Rao

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at
Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS A7-149, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1732, USA; Kaiser Permanente,
Oakland Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 280 W. MacArthur Blvd, Oakland, CA 94611

Received July 9, 2010; accepted July 22, 2010, available online July 25, 2010

Abstract: Urine cytology coupled with cystoscopic examination has been and remains to be the standard in the
initial evaluation of lower urinary tract lesions to rule out bladder cancer.  However, cystoscopy is invasive and
may miss some flat lesions, whereas cytology has low sensitivity in low-grade papillary disease.  Additional
lab-based or office-based markers are needed to aid in the evaluation of these lesions.  Recently, many such
markers have been developed for the purpose of improving the cytologic diagnosis of bladder malignancies.  In
this review, we will first discuss conventional cytomorphologic analysis of urine cytology followed by a discussion
of markers that have been developed in the past for detection and surveillance of urothelial carcinoma.  We will
focus on how these markers can be used in conjunction with urine cytology in daily practice. (AJTR1007003).

Key words: Bladder cancer, urine cytology, tumor markers

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Address all correspondence to:
Peggy S. Sullivan, MD
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Center for the Health Sciences, A3-231L
10833 Le Conte Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1732
Office : (310) 983-1092
Fax : (310) 206-8108
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