Review Article Urine cytology and adjunct markers for detection and sureveillance of bladder cancer
Peggy S. Sullivan, Jessica B. Chan, Mary R. Levin, Jianyu Rao
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS A7-149, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1732, USA; Kaiser Permanente, Oakland Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 280 W. MacArthur Blvd, Oakland, CA 94611
Received July 9, 2010; accepted July 22, 2010, available online July 25, 2010
Abstract: Urine cytology coupled with cystoscopic examination has been and remains to be the standard in the initial evaluation of lower urinary tract lesions to rule out bladder cancer. However, cystoscopy is invasive and may miss some flat lesions, whereas cytology has low sensitivity in low-grade papillary disease. Additional lab-based or office-based markers are needed to aid in the evaluation of these lesions. Recently, many such markers have been developed for the purpose of improving the cytologic diagnosis of bladder malignancies. In this review, we will first discuss conventional cytomorphologic analysis of urine cytology followed by a discussion of markers that have been developed in the past for detection and surveillance of urothelial carcinoma. We will focus on how these markers can be used in conjunction with urine cytology in daily practice. (AJTR1007003).
Address all correspondence to: Peggy S. Sullivan, MD Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Center for the Health Sciences, A3-231L 10833 Le Conte Avenue Los Angeles, CA 90095-1732 Office : (310) 983-1092 Fax : (310) 206-8108 E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org